Society Mixed Fifty years after passage of the landmark law that rewrote U. Looking ahead, new Pew Research Center U.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. To determine the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh D antigens and, additionally, investigate gene diversity and the structure of Mexican populations.
Blood groups were tested insubjects from to For the Rh group, Different distributions of blood groups across regions were found; additionally, genetic analysis revealed that the and allele showed an increasing trend from the north to the center, while the and allele tended to increase from the center to the north.
Also, we found more gene diversity in both loci in the north compared with the center, suggesting population structure in Mexico. This work could help health institutions to identify where they can obtain blood products necessary for medical interventions.
Moreover, this piece of information contributes to the knowledge of the genetic structure of the Mexican populations which could have significant implications in different fields of biomedicine. Introduction More than a century has passed since the discovery of ABO system by Karl Landsteiner in ; this knowledge has contributed to the understanding of some mechanisms basis of heredity, and today it still has a great conceptual and clinical interest [ 1 ]; also, blood antigens had been related to predisposing individuals to some diseases like cancer, diabetes, infectious diseases, and heart illnesses [ 2 — 4 ] or protecting individuals against some diseases such as malaria and diabetes [ 56 ].
Moreover, blood antigens had been used to evaluate ethnic diversity of human populations [ 7 ], for which they have been widely studied in population genetics [ 89 ].
The ABO and Rh blood groups are the most relevant antigens because their incompatibility produces hemolysis [ 10 ] and hemolytic disease of the newborn in the case of the Rh group [ 11 ].
Furthermore, blood antigens play an important role in the success of transfusions and organ transplants [ 12 ]; compatibility of ABO groups between donors and recipients is desirable to avoid immune responses against allograft and reducing the use of immunosuppressive therapies.
The main challenge is to understand how to promote tolerant immune responses against allograft tissues; different factors such as age, viral serology, and gender had been studied to identify their relationship with allograft rejection.
Additionally, the role of ethnicity has been poorly studied [ 13 — 17 ]. For the above, molecular biology has taken great importance to identify genetic variants present in several ethnic groups that could play an important role in the success of allograft transplants between donors and recipients [ 18 ].
There are few works about population genetics in Mexico [ 19 — 21 ]. The first studies were performed by Lisker and colleagues, in indigenous and mestizo populations by studying several blood antigens [ 922 ]; however, few populations were studied and currently there is lack of information about blood groups distribution in the country, whereby it is essential to get this information to help health institutions for the effective management of their blood banks that facilitate transplant medicine practices.
Here we report the distribution of ABO and D antigens in 17 states of the country.
Additionally, we used the ABO and D loci as a genetic trait to investigate gene structure of Mexican populations. The above will provide information which would support national programs for blood and organ transplant in Mexico as well as increase the knowledge of Mexican genetics.
Material and Methods 2. Study Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients who visited the clinics of Salud Digna para Todos in 17 states of Mexico from to The selection of participants was performed using a nonprobabilistic sampling with information on the blood group test.The Latino population in the United States has reached nearly 58 million in and has been the principal driver of U.S.
demographic growth, accounting for half of national population growth since The Latino population itself has evolved during this time, with changes in immigration, education and other characteristics.
Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. One study observed that the edit and imputation procedures had increased the overlap between various racial groups and the Hispanic population which probably led to these unexpected results.
7 Specifically, this analysis suggested about 62 percent of the Black Mexicans reflected in the census results were created by the edit and imputation.
Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Mexicans.
We measured heterozy-gosity (HET), performed principal components analysis (PCA) (32), and calculated F ST statistics using data sets obtained for Mexican and HapMap populations. Get the latest news and analysis in the stock market today, including national and world stock market news, business news, financial news and more.
May 26, · Of all Mexican groups, the Amerindian ZAP population showed the highest F ST values when compared to all HapMap populations.
As expected, the highest value was observed when compared to YRI (), .