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Confederation Congress[ edit ] The three-fifths ratio originated with a amendment proposed to the Articles of Confederation.
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The proposal by a committee of the Congress had suggested that taxes "shall be supplied by the several colonies in proportion to the number of inhabitants of every age, sex, and quality, except Indians not paying taxes".
As Thomas Jefferson wrote in his notes on the debates, the southern states would be taxed "according to their numbers and their wealth conjunctly, while the northern would be taxed on numbers only".
Constitutional Convention[ edit ] The Convention had unanimously accepted the principle that representation in the House of Representatives would be in proportion to the relative state populations. However, since slaves could not vote, leaders in slave states would thus have the benefit of increased representation in the House and the Electoral College.
Delegates opposed to slavery proposed that only free inhabitants of each state be counted three page business plan apportionment purposes, while delegates supportive of slavery, on the other hand, opposed the proposal, wanting slaves to count in their actual numbers. The proposal was debated on July 11th and initially, the concept of counting by a three-fifths ratio was voted down by the members present at the Convention.
Compromise and enactment[ edit ] After a contentious debate, the compromise that was finally agreed upon—of counting "all other persons" as only three-fifths of their actual numbers—reduced the representation of the slave states relative to the original proposals, but improved it over the Northern position.
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.
A contentious issue at the Constitutional Convention was whether slaves would be counted as part of the population in determining representation of the states in the Congress or would instead be considered property and, as such, not be considered for purposes of representation. Delegates from states with a large population of slaves argued that slaves should be considered persons in determining representation, but as property if the new government were to levy taxes on the states on the basis of population.
Delegates from states where slavery had become rare argued that slaves should be included in taxation, but not in determining representation.
The proposed ratio was, however, a ready solution to the impasse that arose during the Constitutional Convention. In that situation, the alignment of the contending forces was the reverse of what had been obtained under the Articles of Confederation in In amending the Articles, the North wanted slaves to count for more than the South did because the objective was to determine taxes paid by the states to the federal government.
In the Constitutional Convention, the more important issue was representation in Congress, so the South wanted slaves to count for more than the North did. They are men, though degraded to the condition of slavery. They are persons known to the municipal laws of the states which they inhabit, as well as to the laws of nature.
But representation and taxation go together Would it be just to impose a singular burden, without conferring some adequate advantage? Infor example, Southern slave states had 47 of the members but would have had 33, had seats been assigned based on free populations.
Inslave states had 76 out of instead of the 59 they would have had; in98 out of instead of As a result, Southern states had disproportionate influence on the presidencythe speakership of the Houseand the Supreme Court in the period prior to the Civil War.
Historian Garry Wills has postulated that without the additional slave state votes, Jefferson would have lost the presidential election of Also, "slavery would have been excluded from Missouri Jackson's Indian removal policy would have failed Support for the new Constitution rested on the balance of these sectional interests.
It provides that "representatives shall be apportioned After the Reconstruction Era came to an end inhowever, the former slave states subverted the objective of these changes by using various strategies to disenfranchise their black citizenswhile obtaining the benefit of apportionment of representatives on the basis of the total populations.
These measures effectively gave white Southerners even greater voting power than they had in the antebellum era, inflating the number of Southern Democrats in the House of Representatives as well as the number of votes they could exercise in the Electoral College in the election of the president.
The disenfranchisement of black citizens eventually attracted the attention of Congress, and in some members proposed stripping the South of seats, related to the number of people who were barred from voting. The Southern bloc comprised Southern Democrats voted into office by white voters and constituted a powerful voting bloc in Congress until the s.ph-vs.com offers you simple and convenient access to all the government information, forms and services you need.
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