It is a subjective matter to what extent one can lead without being hegemonic, and quite often hegemony may be taken too far, forgetting its original principle of leadership, this will be discussed later in the essay.
History of colonialism and Decolonization The era of European colonialism lasted from the 16th to 19th centuries and involved European powers vastly extending their reach around the globe by establishing colonies in the AmericasAfricaand Asia.
The dismantling of European empires following World War II saw the process of decolonization begin in earnest. One of the main clauses of the charter acknowledged the right of all people to choose their own government.
Settler colonialism Settler colonialism is a form of colonisation where foreign citizens move into a region and create permanent or temporary settlements called colonies.
The creation of settler colonies often resulted in the forced migration of indigenous peoples to less desirable territories through forced migration. Native populations frequently suffer population collapse due do contact with new diseases. Regions free of tropical disease with easy access to trade routes were favorable.
This type of colonial behavior led to the disruption of local customary practices and the transformation of socioeconomic systems. Ugandan academic Mahmood Mamdani cites "the destruction of communal autonomy, and the defeat and dispersal of tribal populations" as one primary factor in colonial oppression.
As agricultural expansion continued through the territories, native populations were further displaced to clear fertile farmland.
Robinsonand Simon Johnson theorize that Europeans were more likely to form settler colonies in areas where they would not face high mortality rates due to disease and other exogenous factors. Exploitation colonialism Since these colonies were created with the intent to extract resources, colonial powers has no incentive to invest in institutions or infrastructure that did not support their immediate goals of exploitation.
Therefore, they established authoritarian regimes in these colonies, which had no limits on state power. Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson argue, "institutions [established by colonials] did not introduce much protection for private property, nor did they provide checks and balances against government expropriation.
In fact, the main purpose of the extractive state was to transfer as much of the resources of the colony to the colonizer, with the minimum amount of investment possible.
Thus, Europeans established authoritarian regimes in these colonies, which had no limits on state power.
Morela British journalist, author, pacifist, and politician, detailed the atrocities in multiple articles and books. Morel believed the Belgian system that eliminated traditional, commercial markets in favor of pure exploitation was the root cause of the injustice in the Congo.
Leopold positioned himself as proprietor of an area totaling nearly one million square miles, which was home to nearly 20 million Africans. It has been estimated that Leopold made 1. Soldiers demanded unrealistic quantities of rubber be collected by African villagers, and when these goals were not met, the soldiers held women hostage, beat or killed the men, and burned crops.
All of this was done at very little monetary cost to Belgium.
Crawford YoungProfessor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin—Madison observed, "[the Belgian companies] brought little capital — a mere pounds Multiple scholars view the roots of authoritarianism under Mobutu as the result of colonial practices.
Indirect rule and Direct colonial rule Systems of colonial rule can be broken into the binary classifications of direct and indirect rule. During the era of colonisation, Europeans were faced with the monumental task of administrating the vast colonial territories around the globe.
The initial solution to this problem was direct rule,  which involves the establishment of a centralized European authority within a territory run by colonial officials.
In a system of direct rule, the native population is excluded from all but the lowest level of the colonial government. These chiefs were either drawn from the existing social hierarchy or were newly minted by the colonial authority.
Rather than following the rule of lawlocal chiefs enjoyed judicial, legislative, executive, and administrative power in addition to legal arbitrariness. In systems of direct rule, Europeans colonial officials oversaw all aspects of governance, while natives were placed in an entirely subordinate role.
Unlike indirect rule, the colonial government did not convey orders through local elites, but rather oversaw administration directly. European laws and customs were imported to supplant traditional power structures.
There are not two authorities in the cerclethe French authority and the native authority; there is only one. There were even instances where people under direct colonial rule secretly elected a real chief in order to retain traditional rights and customs.
The desire for regional homogeneity was the driving force behind the French colonial doctrine of Assimilation. For the French colonies, this mean the enforcement of the French penal code, the right to send a representative to parliamentand imposition of tariff laws as a form of economic assimilation.
Requiring natives to assimilate in these and other ways, created an ubiquitous, European-style identity that made no attempt to protect native identities. Lakshmi Iyer, of Harvard Business Schoolconducted research to determine the impact type of rule can have on a region, looking at postcolonial India, where both systems were present under British rule.
In the modern postcolonial period, areas formerly ruled directly by the British perform worse economically and have significantly less access to various public goodssuch as health carepublic infrastructureand education.
Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of ColonialismMamdani claims the two types of rule were each sides of the same coin.To what extent can technology help solve the problem of food shortages in the world?
Words are more treacherous and powerful than we think". Evaluate the extent to which the characteristics Sartre claims for words affect - negatively or positively - different Areas of Knowledge. - What Is Globalisation and to What Extent Is the Contemporary World Actually Globalised?
introduction?? To answer the question this essay will begin by attempting to provide a definition to thesometimes elusive meaning of the term ‘globalisation’.
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To What Extent Can the Assertion That Globalisation Is Exploitative Be Justified? Introduction What is globalisation? Globalisation is the exchange of goods and services between nations. Many things can be ‘globalised’-goods, services, money, people, information, effects on the international order as well as less tangible things such as ideas, behavioural norms and cultural practices.
Cold War Essay Choose one of the following questions below for your essay topic. Be sure to answer in proper essay form with an introduction, at least three reasons with supporting evidence and examples, and a conclusion. to what extent can the assertion that globalisation is exploitative be justified?
Introduction What is globalisation? Globalisation is the exchange of goods and services between nations.